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Labour market


Labour costs

Labour costs are one of the most important factors determining investment attractiveness of a country. In 2014, the EU hourly labour costs rose by 1.4%, compared to the previous year. The largest increase was recorded in Estonia - 6.7%, Bulgaria - 6% and Latvia - 5.8%. In 2014, the average hourly labour costs were estimated at EUR 24.6 in the EU-28. However, this average masks significant gaps between EU member states, with hourly labour costs ranging between EUR 3.8 (Bulgaria) and EUR 40.3 (Denmark). In Poland, it amounted to EUR 8.4.

In 2014, the highest hourly labour costs among the CEE countries were registered in Estonia (EUR 9.8), Slovakia (EUR 9.7) and the Czech Republic (EUR 9.4). The chart below represents the hourly labour costs among the CEE countries.

Minimum wage

In 2015, out of the 28 Member States of the European Union, 22 had national minimum wages set. These ranged from EUR 184 per month in Bulgaria to EUR 1 923 in Luxembourg. Among the CEE countries Romania (14%), Latvia (13%), Estonia (10%) recorded the highest increase in the minimum wage. A decrease was recorded in Hungary (- 2%). In 2015, the minimum wage increased in Poland by 3.5%. Among all CEE countries Poland recorded the highest nominal value of the minimum wage - EUR 409.53.


Unemployment rate

Among all EU member states, the highest unemployment rates in 2014 were recorded in Greece - 26.5%, Spain - 24.5% and Croatia - 17.3%. The lowest unemployment rates were observed in Germany - 5%, Austria - 5.6% and Malta - 5.8%. Among the CEE countries the highest unemployment rate was recorded in Slovakia (13.2%) and the lowest unemployment rate was recorded in the Czech Republic (6.1%). In 2014 the unemployment rate in Poland stood at 9%. The chart below represents the unemployment rate among the CEE countries.
 


Skilled workforce

In 2014, among the EU-27 member states, there were over 20 million tertiary education students. Germany, the most populous member state in the EU, had 2.9 million tertiary education students, which was the highest number in the EU, followed by the United Kingdom (2.3 million), France (2.3 million), Spain (2 millions), Italy (1.8 millions) and Poland (1.5 millions).


Average gross wage in Poland

In January 2016, the average gross wage in Poland stood at PLN 4 101.36. At the same time the unemployment rate was 10.3%. The map below depicts the average gross wage and unemployment rate in each region of Poland (as of January 2016).

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Polish Investment and Trade Agency
ul. Bagatela 12; 00-585 Warsaw;
Fax: +48 22 334 9889

e-mail for investors: invest@paih.gov.pl

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