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Labour market

Labour costs

Labour costs are one of the most important factors determining investment attractiveness of a country. In 2016, the average hourly labour costs were estimated at EUR 25.4 in the EU-28. However, this average masks significant gaps between EU member states, with hourly labour costs ranging between EUR 4.40 (Bulgaria) and EUR 42.0 (Denmark). In Poland, it amounted to EUR 8.6.

In 2016, the highest hourly labour costs among the CEE countries were registered in Estonia (EUR 10.9), Slovakia (EUR 10.4) and the Czech Republic (EUR 10.2). The chart below represents the hourly labour costs among the CEE countries.

Minimum wage

In 2017, out of the 28 Member States of the European Union, 22 have national minimum wages set. These ranged from EUR 235,20 per month in Bulgaria to EUR 1 998,59 in Luxembourg. In 2017, the minimum wage increased in Poland by 3.5% and in Hungary (13%). Among all CEE countries Poland recorded the highest nominal value of the minimum wage - EUR 453.48.

Unemployment rate

Among all EU member states, the highest unemployment rates in 2016 were recorded in Greece - 23.6%, Spain - 19.6% and Croatia - 13.3%. The lowest unemployment rates were observed in Germany – 4.1%, Czech Republic - 4.0% and Great Britain - 4.8%. Among the CEE countries the highest unemployment rate was recorded in Slovakia (9.7%) and the lowest unemployment rate was recorded in the Czech Republic (4.0%). In 2017, the unemployment rate in Poland stood at 8,5%. The chart below represents the unemployment rate among the CEE countries.

Skilled workforce

In 2016, among the EU-28 member states, there were over 20 million tertiary education students. Germany, the most populous member state in the EU, had 2.9 million tertiary education students, which was the highest number in the EU, followed by the United Kingdom (2.4 million), France (2.3 million), Spain (2 millions), Italy (1.9 millions) and Poland (1.7 millions).

Average gross wage in Poland

In February 2017, the average gross wage in Poland stood at PLN 4 304.95. At the same time the unemployment rate was 8.5%. The map below depicts the average gross wage and unemployment rate in each region of Poland (as of January 2016).


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