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Foreign direct investments in Poland

(according to the National Bank of Poland data)

The FDI stock equalled to EUR 167.1 billion at the end of 2015.

The  main foreign investors at the end of 2015 were:

  • The Netherlands: EUR 30.3 billion
  • Germany: EUR 27.3 billion
  • Luxembourg: EUR 19.34 billion
  • and France: EUR 17.9 bilion

FDI stock division by sector:

  • manufacturing EUR 53.8 billion;
  • financial and insurance activity EUR 31.4 billion;
  • wholesale and retail trade including repair of vehicles EUR 21.1 billion
  • activities related to real estate services EUR 13.1 bilion

FDI stock at the end of 2015

Source: NBP


FDI inflows at the end of 2015 (bn EUR)

Source: NBP


FDI inflow in 2015 equalled to EUR 12.7 billion.

The biggest investors were:

  • The Netherlands EUR 2.87 bilion
  • The United Kingdom EUR 2.53 bilion
  • Germany EUR 2.35 bilion;

The biggest disinvestments have been observed from the following countries:

  • The USA EUR -0.31 bilion
  • Slovakia EUR -0.22 bilion
  • Malta EUR -0.21 bilion

FDI inflow division by sector:

  • manufacturing EUR 2.8 billion;
  • wholesale and retail trade including repair of vehicles EUR 2.4 bilion
  • professional, scientific and technical activities EUR 2.5 bilion

Balance of payments and international investment position compilation principles have been outlined in the 6th edition of Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual (BPM6). The main objective of BPM6 is ensuring international comparability of data across balance of payments and international investment position.

The BPM6 has been revised in parallel with the update of System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA 2008) and European System of Accounts 2010 (ESA2010). The OECD4 Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment Manual has also been revised. The aforementioned regulations employ unified definitions, classifications and conventions with the view to ensure consistency and comparability of balance of payments statistics and system of national accounts data.

Furthermore, methodological adjustments and additional positions in assets and liabilities have been introduced to further comparability with the system of national accounts. Therefore the data for years before 2013 are not directly comparable.


Foreign investors in Poland - data by the Central Statistical Office

According to the Central Statistical Office research, the pool of entities with foreign capital amounted to 25 961 firms. In 2015 there were 534 entities with foreign capital created vs. 1 369 in the previous year.

Among new firms created in 2015 there were 384 new greenfield projects.

New entities accounted for 1.5% of all entities with foreign capital (in the previous year -4.2%).

The foreign capital in companies where its value exceeded USD 1 m in total, amounted to 96.5% of foreign capital invested in Poland. The biggest share of foreign capital was recorded in firms from the manufacturing sector (36.0%), trade and repair of cars (21.4%).

Foreign capital located in Poland in 2015 originated from 127 countries. From the European Union and the OECD countries originated 90.8% and 93.9% of foreign capital respectively. Countries that located the uppermost amount of capital are the Netherlands (18.6% of the total foreign capital), Germany (17.5%), and France (14.3%).

At the end of 2015 there were 1818.5 thousand persons employed in companies with foreign capital, 4.0% more than in the previous year. They were employed foremost in manufacturing (45.5% of all employed) and trade and repair of cars (23.3%).

Similarly to the previous year, almost 70% of the total employed in entities with foreign capital were employed in entities established in four voivodships: Mazowieckie (34.3%), Wielkopolskie (14.8%), Silesian (10.5%) and Lower Silesian 9.4%).

Information based on: Economic Activity of Entities with Foreign Capital in 2015, Central Statistical Office.

Additional information

National Bank of Poland

Central Statistical Office




(Last update: July 2017)



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